Musical Saint Ureuk
Ureuk was the master and inventor of Gayageum who worked as a musician during King Gasil of Gayaguk. He was called by King Gasil while living in Sungyulhyun of Gayaguk, and he moved to Daegaya (Goryeong of Gyeongbuk) and developed Gaya's music, dance, song and so forth. Ureuk integrated various types of stringed instruments at that time and made Gayageum. He was a musical saint who upgraded the folk music of Gaya area into fine art.
When Gayaguk became unstable, Ureuk exiled to Shilla. King Jinheung placed Ureuk in Gukwon (Chungju) and sent 3 government officials to him so that they can learn music, dance, song and so forth from him. Later, Ureuk's music, dance, song and so forth were adopted as Daeark the royal music of Shilla laying the foundation of traditional Korean music.
- Kyego - Daenama (10th place in the 17 positions of Shilla) Learned Gayageum
- Bupji - Daenama (10th place in the 17 positions of Shilla) Learned Song
- Manduk - Daesa (12th place in the 17 positions of Shilla) Learned Dance
Who was King Gasil?
As a King at the end of Daegaya, he was also called King Gabo.
King Gasil is estimated to have lived during the time of Ureuk and King Jinheung (546-576). King Gasil was the great cultural king who made music with our people's unique musical instrument. He integrated musical instruments that were used in various places into Gayageum, and he made Ureuk compose 12 songs that contained the musical characteristics of each region. This was a brilliant work that can be compared to the invention of Hangul that King Sejong made in order to integrate language and letter.
Meaning of 12 Songs
The 12 songs that Ureuk composed according to the order of King Gasil are Hagarado, Sangarado, Boge, Dalge, Samul, Mulhae, Hagemul, Sajage, Geoyeol, Sapalhae, Esa and Sangemul.
According to King Gasil's view of music that the dialects of various nations can not be standardized as their sounds are all different, the songs were composed and played as various regions' folk music. In addition, spiritual unity was achieved as the musics in regions under the political and cultural influences of Daegaya and in small nations were integrated through Gayageum music.
Among the 12 songs that Ureuk composed, 9 songs were revealed to be the names of regions. Some people think that they are kinds of ceremonies such as exorcism.
Goryeong and Ureuk
Goryeong region can be reached from southern seashore through River Nakdong, and it is located in the most important area that goes to all directions. Because of such geographical advantages, it was able to trade with other nations actively, absorbed the advanced culture faster than other Gayaguks and became the strongest country among other small nations of Gaya during the 5th century. Daegaya produced iron from Hapchunyaro and agricultural products based on stable agricultural foundation. Daegaya enjoyed high quality music and art. Based on such economic capacity, King Gasil of Daegaya attempted cultural unity of Gayaguk through Ureuk who was a genius artist.
Kweibinri (Gumgok), which is located in the northwest of Goryeonggun district office, has the legend that Ureuk made 12 songs with Gayageum according to the order of King Gasil. As Ureuk's Gayageum made "jung jung" sound, the village is still called Jungjunggol.