Shape of burial of the living with the dead in Jisanri Tumulus No. 44
Jisanri Tumulus No. 44 has three large stone rooms and it seems that the largest stone room is the main stone room of the major person and other two rooms are the annexed stone rooms like warehouses for the life of the person in the next world. In the main stone room, a person buried with the dead was found as well as the main person and, in each of the annexed stone rooms, one person buried with the dead was found. The human bones equivalent about 24 persons were found in the 32 stone coffins, which are arranged around the stone rooms, of the living buried with the dead and, if the human bones disappeared due to disturbance or corrosion are considered, about 40 persons seemed to be buried. Such a large-scale burial of the living with the dead has not been found in the tumuli of the Three Country Times. Especially, it is notable that the living buried with the dead consists of the persons having various kinds of jobs. That is, the person buried with the dead main person seems to be in close relation with the main man during his or her life and the persons found in the annexed stone rooms seems to have the role of warehouse keeper in consideration of the specific features of the space. The persons buried in surrounding small stone coffins are classified into the persons wearing gold accessories, the persons possessing weapons such as the sword with round pommel, the persons possessing horse equipments, the persons with no accessory or weapon. This classification indicates that the persons consisted of various kinds of jobs including servants, guard warriors, soldiers, and the commoner.
Review of burial of the living with the dead based on the records
Burial of the living with the dead is the funeral ceremony that, when a person is dead, living persons or animals are killed and buried with him or her together. Use of the persons in the burial ceremony of a person after killing is the reflection of the governing power of the governor possessing powerful authority and such method was specifically popular in the ancient times in the world. This type of ceremonies were performed in the meaning that the life in this world would also be enjoyed in the next world based on the thought of life after death of ancient persons who believed that the life would be continued after dead, too. It is stated that “Persons are killed and buried with the dead and, if many, the number of persons reached 100" in Buyeojo of Wiseodongijeon of Romance of the Three Kingdoms of the country and it is apparent that burial of the living with the dead was done early in Buyeo times. Also, it is stated that “When performing the burial ceremony of King Dongchun (AD 248), close subjects intended to die to follow him but King Jungchun, who acceded to the throne following to King Dongchun, prohibited their death saying that it was not a good manner” in the Dongchunwangjo in Koguryobongi of Samgugsagi (Three-Country History). However, there is the record that, as many persons came to the tomb on the day of burial and voluntarily died, they cut trees and covered the dead bodies and this record indicates that the custom of voluntary dying of the living to follow the dead was also kept similarly with the burial of the living with the dead in Koguryo. It is stated that “It was prohibited by an order in March in Year # (AD 502) to bury each five male and female living persons with the dead when a king dies” in Jijeungmaribganjo in Shillabongi of Samgugsagi indicating that burial of the living with the dead was popular in our ancient societies. It was identified through the excavation of the tumuli that burial of the living with the dead was extensively performed in Daegaya that remained almost no history, indicating that Gaya also had the common custom of the ancient countries.
(714-801)1203, Daegaya-ro, Daegaya-eup, Goryeong-gun, Gyeongsangbuk-do, Korea
Copyrightⓒ 2001~2009 Daegaya Museum. All rights reserved.